State Pattern:

The state design pattern is a behavioral design pattern that allows an object to alter its behavior when its internal state changes. The pattern involves creating a "context" object whose behavior varies as its state changes. Benefits: 1. Encapsulation of state-specific behavior: Each state encapsulates the behavior related to that state. This improves modularity and makes the code easier to maintain. If you want to change the behavior of a specific state, you only need to modify that state's class. 2. Simplification: The number of conditional statements is often reduced. Without this pattern, the behavior of an object may be controlled with a series of conditional statements. 3. Extensible: If you need to add a new state, you can do so by adding a new class. You don't need to change existing state classes or the context class. 4. Runtime state transitions: Allows an object to change its behavior at runtime, depending on its state. Imagine a traffic light that has three states: green, yellow, and red. Each of these states dictates the behavior of the drivers on the road. When the light is green, cars can go. When it's yellow, they slow down and prepare to stop, and when it's red, they stop. The traffic light's state changes the behavior of the drivers. Implementation in Go: